Predictive coding theories state an aberrant weighting of prior beliefs and present sensory information as a core computational pathology in psychosis. Specifically, it has been proposed that the influence of prior beliefs which attenuate improbable sensory information is weakened, resulting in an overweighing of this potentially misleading information. However, it is currently unclear whether this alteration is specific to perceptual processes or whether it represents a more pervasive deficit that extends to cognitive processes. Here, we carried out 2 behavioral experiments that probed the usage of priors during perceptual and cognitive processes, respectively, in 123 healthy individuals with varying degrees of delusion proneness. In an audio-visual perceptual discrimination task, participants had to judge the global motion direction of random dot kinematograms. Prior beliefs were induced by auditory cues that probabilistically predicted the global motion direction of the dot kinematograms, allowing us to measure the impact of prior beliefs on perceptual decision making. A control experiment paralleled the design of the perceptual decision making task in the domain of cognitive decision making. By fitting the participants’ responses with a probabilistic decision model, we quantified the impact of prior beliefs on participants’ decisions in both tasks. With growing delusion proneness, we found a decreased impact of prior beliefs on perceptual but not on cognitive decision making. Our results show that delusion proneness is linked to a specifically reduced usage of prior beliefs in perceptual decisions, thereby empirically substantiating predictive coding theories of psychosis.