For most advanced industrialized countries, an aging society has been a national issue since the 1970s. However, Taiwan was not aware of this issue until 1993, the year when the old-age population reached 7.0%. As an aging nation under the definition of the United Nations, the Taiwanese government began to pay more attention to the aging population, and executed several policies in response to this demographic transition. First, this article examines Taiwan’s demographic transition from an aging society to an aged society, and its impacts. Second, it demonstrates the responses of Taiwan to the coming of an aged society and explores crucial issues that Taiwanese society is facing.