Later-generation Mexican American (third or more) experience diminishing educational gains compared with second-generation Mexican Americans. Positive racial and ethnic socialization (RES) and ethnic identity can facilitate strong academic performance. Using the oral histories of 18 third- and fourth-generation Mexican Americans in the same family, this study describes RES from childhood to young adulthood to understand how RES can be used to improve their academic circumstances. Results indicate that later-generation RES is multidimensional and influenced by varied factors (e.g., historical moment, socioeconomic status). As a result, Mexican Americans develop a dual RES self-schema that lacks academic achievement as a result of both the ethnic and larger community neglecting to positively affect RES and ethnic identity. The author suggests that the ethnic community (families) and larger society need to re-define group membership to incorporate academic achievement.