This contribution identifies some of the major themes and controversies in current research on stigma and social disadvantage, paying particular attention to the perspective of the stigmatized. We examine the social contextual and interactive nature of stigmatization that determines its impact and consequences for those who are stigmatized. We outline some areas of research where different findings seem incompatible or have remained unresolved. Specifically, we identify moderators of the consequences of social stigma for the self, of the role of identification with the stigmatized group as a source of vulnerability or of resilience, as well as of how stigma affects task performance. In this way, we provide a thematic framework outlining the different ways in which the articles in this special issue contribute to the resolution of current controversies and debates in the literature on social stigma.