Kuzenko N, Sareen J, Beesdo-Baum K, Perkonigg A, Höfler M, Simm J, Lieb R, Wittchen H-U. Associations between use of cocaine, amphetamines, or psychedelics and psychotic symptoms in a community sample.
Objective: To investigate the association between use of cocaine, amphetamines, or psychedelics and psychotic symptoms.
Method: Cumulated lifetime data from a prospective, longitudinal community study of 2588 adolescents and young adults in Munich, Germany, were used. Substance use at baseline, 4-year and 10-year follow-up and psychotic symptoms at 4-year and 10-year follow-up were assessed using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Data from all assessment waves were aggregated, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed. Additional analyses adjusted for sociodemographics, common mental disorders, other substance use, and childhood adversity (adjusted odds ratios, AOR).
Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, lifetime experience of two or more psychotic symptoms was associated with lifetime use of cocaine (AOR 1.94; 95% CI 1.10–3.45) and psychedelics (AOR 2.37; 95% CI 1.20–4.66). Additionally, when mood or anxiety disorders were excluded, lifetime experience of two or more psychotic symptoms was associated with use of psychedelics (AOR 3.56; 95% CI 1.20–10.61).
Conclusion: Associations between psychotic symptoms and use of cocaine, and/or psychedelics in adolescents and young adults call for further studies to elucidate risk factors and developmental pathways.