In 1943, a distinguished child psychiatrist at Johns Hopkins University, Leo Kanner, published what would become a landmark article: a description of 11 children who suffered from a distinct disorder he called ‘infantile autism’. While initially quite obscure, in the early 1950s Kanner’s report garnered much attention, as clinicians and researchers interpreted these case studies as exemplifying the ill-effects of maternal deprivation, a new theory that rapidly gained currency in the United States.
This brief conceptual history, modeled on Koselleck’s Begriffsgeschichte, adds to earlier histories of empathy. It showed that Johann Gottfried Herder, not Robert Vischer, invented Einfühlung as an objective scholarly method during 18th-century absolutist–relativist disputes.
This article explores some of the normative commitments which persist in the literature on behavioural interventions for disorders of inattention and hyperactivity.
This study analyzes aspects related to family structure and kinship (in particularly, to relations between parents and children, but other types than the blood relations) and the influences they had on seventeenth-century Moldavian society.
A centenary conference organised by the National Trust and University of Oxford, Sutton House
Ranks of police face the picket line at Orgreave Coking Plant near Rotherham in June 1984.
The concept of the sick role entered sociology in 1951 when Talcott Parsons creatively separated the sick person out of the doctor–patient dyad.
In this broadcast from December 1935, Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins is defending and explaining the recently passed Social Security Act, while journalist George E. Sokolsky is attacking the new legislation.
Despite its unprecedented mass mortality and recent popularity among historians, the 1918–19 Spanish influenza pandemic rarely figures into national histories. Similarly, national, social, and political histories rarely inform histories of this pandemic.
Richard Titmuss was one of the world’s leading public analysts and philosophers. He was enormously influential in shaping the post-war welfare state and created the discipline that we now call social policy. It is now forty years since he died. What would he have made of the present state of welfare? The present state of social policy? Welfare reformers frequently talk of going back to Beveridge. Should we not think of going back to Titmuss?
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Arnold Toynbee (1852-1881) died before the age of thirty but nevertheless in his short life as a scholar his thinking did much to change how education could be developed through work in the poorer parts of Britain’s cities. He lectured in economic history at Oxford University where he was very critical of the effects of the industrial revolution which he saw emerging all around him.
Do you remember Pathe News? Taking the train to the seaside? The purple stains of iodine on the knees of boys in short trousers? Knitted bathing costumes? – See more at: http://www.thehistorypress.co.uk/index.php/general-history-books/modern-history-books/a-1950s-childhood-ebook.html#sthash.Lf8MGGNl.dpuf
Grace Abbott and her sister Edith fought for social welfare reform on behalf of the urban lower classes, working with Jane Addams at Hull House in Chicago from 1908 to 1920.
Voices from the Workhouse tells the real inside story of the workhouse – in the words of those who experienced the institution at first hand, either as inmates or through some other connection with the institution.
This article deals with the forced labor system within the Spanish Concentration Universe, mainly that related to work battalions that were under the control of the Concentration Camps Inspectorate, involved in work consisting of opening roads along the Western Pyrenees after Spanish Civil War.
The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), the main union federation in South Africa, was instrumental in ending apartheid. This paper evaluates COSATU’s post-apartheid role in working for democracy elsewhere in Southern Africa.
The history of transnational trade unionism has been analysed in terms of mutual assistance, regulating global capital, augmenting the legitimacy, prestige and power of unions and their leaders, and providing avenues for states to prosecute national interests. From the 1920s to the 1980s, international organisations of trade unionists constituted a site of struggle between the antagonistic philosophies of transnationalism and trade unionism of Communists, social democrats and liberals, the USSR and the capitalist democracies.
World War I witnessed the admission of large numbers of German soldiers with neurological symptoms for which there was no obvious organic cause. This posed a considerable challenge for the military and medical authorities and resulted in an active discussion on the etiology and treatment of these disorders.
There are different ways in which the question ‘what makes humans distinct from other species?’
can be answered. One way is to refer to the ability of humans to reason and make rational
decisions; another is to point to the capacity of humans to speak and express themselves in
symbols; or to imagine future events and be aware of their mortality; and so on. I propose to
focus here on the capacity of humans to make ethical choices and to view this as a feature of
common sense knowledge and to that extent, as a feature of the theory of social representations.
This article draws on both published and unpublished private family writing to examine how European settler colonial families in southeastern Australia and New Zealand negotiated worlds of sickness and health between 1850 and 1910.
The transnational turn in the humanities and social sciences has had slender impact on the study of trade unionism in Britain. In industrial relations and labor history, the fields where most research into trade unions has been conducted, approaches have remained insular.
Adrienne Pagnette, an adolescent French illiterate, speaks almost no English. Is probably 14 or 15. Doffs on top floor spinning room in Glenallen Mill. Location: Winchendon, Mass.
Despite Chinatown’s shady reputation, it was a tight-knit community whose residents were familiar with one another. Parents allowed their children, who were highly cherished (especially since there were so few of them due to the early lack of women and families), to roam the streets without supervision during the day. The sense of all of Chinatown as being a children’s playground was deftly captured by the photographer Arnold Genthe, who considered Chinese children to be some of his favorite subjects.
In Western countries modern psychology originated out of the convergence of philosophy and science,
embedded in the social change. Modern psychology in China did not grow out of an indigenous socio-cultural
root, but was instead imported from Western countries approximately during 1876 to 1922, when China was
being colonized and reformed. A political, social and cultural analysis explains the emergence and formation of
modern psychology in China
This article assesses the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) during the presidency of John J. Sweeney, which lasted from 1995 until 2009. Drawing on a wide range of sources, including press accounts and the AFL-CIO’s own papers, it provides one of the first scholarly assessments of the entire Sweeney presidency.
Penfield was an early leader in efforts to map the cerebral cortex via direct electrical stimulation of the brain. In 1937, Penfield introduced an entirely new concept for illustrating the relative sizes and locations of discrete functional regions within the sensorimotor cortex–—the homunculus—to exemplify the “order and comparative extent” of specific functional regions.
Analysis of the sixty-nine juveniles tried for high treason before the People’s Court in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945, based on the available court records, finds that juvenile resistance in Nazi Germany possessed a distinct form and character; it was a phenomenon rather than an exceptional act.
An act to provide for the general welfare by establishing a system of Federal old-age benefits, and by enabling the several States to make more adequate provision for aged persons, blind persons, dependent and crippled children, maternal and child welfare, public health, and the administration of their unemployment compensation laws; to establish a Social Security Board; to raise revenue; and for other purposes.
The history of domestic violence, let alone domestic homicide, in Russia has yet to be written. This article focuses on the legal attitudes to domestic and especially marital homicide in early modern Russia and explores types of and methods used in spousal killings.
In November 1944, 36 young men took up residence in the corridors and rooms of the University of Minnesota football stadium. They were not members of the football team. Rather, they were volunteers preparing for a nearly yearlong experiment on the psychological and physiological effects of starvation. Known as the Minnesota Starvation Experiment, the study was a project of the newly established Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene at the University of Minnesota, an interdisciplinary research institution with an emphasis on nutrition and human biology.
This article analyses the sociopolitical interactions that shaped an early colonial union statute that constituted a milestone because of its early passage, draconian nature and wider influence in the British Empire.