Cancer patients’ quality of life (QoL) and distress are affected by dispositional factors such as attachment anxiety or avoidance. In this review, we aimed to provide a thorough overview of the relationship between attachment dimensions and QoL and distress among early-stage breast cancer patients. Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic search using PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cinahl, Google Scholar, and PMC Europe. We reviewed 8 eligible studies describing 1180 patients. Insecure attachment appeared to be related to poorer QoL and higher distress levels. Avoidant attachment was more frequent and was more often associated with more negative outcomes. Healthcare providers should consider investigating modifiable personality traits in the immediate post diagnosis period to identify patients more vulnerable to mental health problems, deliver personalized care, and reduce emotional burden.