Treatment of schizotypal personality disorder is complex. Currently, there are no clear evidence-based recommendations for use of psychotherapy for individuals suffering from this mental illness, and studies are sparse. Our aim in this review is to map and describe the existing research and to answer the research question: What do we know about the use of psychotherapy for people with schizotypal personality disorder?
We conducted a scoping review using systematic searches in the Embase, MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases. Two reviewers screened possible studies and extracted data on subject samples, type of psychotherapy, outcomes and suggested mechanisms of change. The review is based on the PRISMA checklist for scoping reviews.
Twenty-three papers were included, and we found a wide variety of study types, psychotherapeutic orientations and outcomes. Few studies emerged that focused solely on schizotypal personality disorder.
Psychotherapy as a treatment for schizotypal personality disorder is understudied compared with diagnoses such as schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder. Our results included two randomized controlled studies, as well as mainly smaller studies with different approaches to diagnostic criteria, psychotherapeutic orientation and outcome measures. The findings are too sparse and too diverse to make any evidence-based recommendations. We found some indications that psychotherapy may support and assist individuals with schizotypal personality disorder.