The objective of this scoping review was to examine and map the range of nonpharmacological interventions used in the perioperative period to prevent anxiety in adolescents.
Undergoing surgery involves experiencing fears and uncertainties that lead to an increase in anxiety levels. The interventions used to prevent anxiety in the perioperative period in adolescents must be appropriate to their developmental stage.
Studies involving adolescents (10 to 19 years of age) undergoing any type of surgical procedure and specifying any nonpharmacological interventions administered to prevent anxiety, implemented in the perioperative period, were included in this review.
A comprehensive search strategy using multiple databases was employed to find relevant studies. The databases search included MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL Plus with Full Text via EBSCOhost, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS, Scopus, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, PsycINFO, The JBI Connect+, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Sources of unpublished studies and gray literature were TDX – Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa (Spain), RCAAP – Repositório Científico de Acesso Aberto de Portugal, OpenGrey – System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, and MedNar. Studies published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese were included. There was no date restriction, or geographical or cultural limitation applied to the search. The relevant studies and their reported outcomes were organized and analyzed.
The database search yielded 1438 articles, and three additional records were added after hand searching. Title, abstract, and full-text review identified 11 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The final data set represented 947 participants. The data were analyzed according to the type of nonpharmacological intervention, population, concept (outcome measured and tool used), context (physical location; preoperative vs. postoperative), frequency and duration of the intervention, and which professional team member implemented the intervention. Eight nonpharmacological interventions were identified, applied either in the preoperative or postoperative context. The nurses were the main professionals administering the nonpharmacological interventions to the adolescents.
A variety of nonpharmacological interventions were used in the perioperative period to prevent anxiety in adolescents. The most common interventions were music/musicotherapy and hypnosis/guided imagery. However, other interventions such as therapeutic play, preoperative preparation program, mothers’ presence during the anesthesia induction, distraction, relaxation training, massage therapy, and reading were also identified. These interventions were used alone or in a combination of two interventions, either preoperatively or postoperatively. The adolescents in the early stage (10-14 years) were the most studied group and the adolescents in the late (17-19 years) stage were the least studied. Future research should focus on the implementation of nonpharmacological interventions in the perioperative period involving adolescents, particularly late adolescents. A systematic review on the effect of nonpharmacological interventions for anxiety management in adolescents in the perioperative period should be conducted.
Scoping review registration:
Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/jhwca/
Correspondence: Marcia Pestana-Santos, email@example.com
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
© 2021 Joanna Briggs Institute.