Refugees encounter numerous healthcare access barriers in host countries, leading to lower utilization rates and poorer health outcomes. In the US, social inequities and fragmented health systems may exacerbate these disparities. Understanding these factors is necessary to ensure equitable care of refugee populations. A systematic literature review of qualitative studies on US adult refugee healthcare access from January 2000 to June 2021 was performed in accordance with PRISMA. Studies were analyzed deductively and then inductively to incorporate previous findings in other resettlement countries and emergence of US-specific themes. 64 articles representing 16+ countries of origin emerged from the final analysis, yielding nine interrelated themes related to health literacy, cost of services, cultural beliefs, and social supports, among others. The main challenges to refugees’ healthcare access emerge from the interactions of care fragmentation with adverse social determinants. Given diverse barriers, integrated care models are recommended in treating refugee populations.