Up to 20% of individuals who die by suicide have visited an emergency department (ED) within 4 weeks of their death. Limited guidance is available regarding the modification of clinical outcomes following a psychosocial intervention in the ED for pediatric and adult populations.
A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted to identify studies focused on single-session psychosocial interventions for pediatric and adult patients experiencing suicide-related thoughts or behaviors (SRTB) in the ED. Two reviewers independently screened articles identified using the key terms suicide/self-harm, emergency department, and interview. Medline, PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched from inception to August 2018.
After screening 3234 abstracts, 29 articles were selected for full-text review and 14 articles, representing 8 distinct studies (N=782), were included. A high level of heterogeneity was present in the included articles, with 7 randomized-controlled trials, 2 nonrandomized-controlled trials, 2 cohort studies, 2 observational studies, and 1 feasibility study. Most of the included studies focused on adolescents (6 articles) or military veterans (7 articles). Strong statistical evidence of ED interventions improving outpatient service linkage was supported (χ2: 81.80, P