Women’s empowerment and contraceptive use are critical to achieving gender equality. The positive association between more empowered women and higher rates of contraceptive use has been well-established by cross-sectional research. However, there remains a gap in understanding the longitudinal relationship between contraceptive adoption and changes to women’s empowerment. This study represents a novel approach to understanding the relationship between contraceptive adoption and women’s empowerment longitudinally, at the individual level. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to measure the relationship between contraceptive adoption and women’s empowerment using more than one wave of panel data. We leverage the longitudinal design of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative data to code empowerment items by change over time (e.g., more empowered, no change, less empowered). We use sparse principal component analysis to establish empowerment change domains and calculate individual scores standardized by country-level averages. We estimate mixed effects models on these change domains, to investigate the link between contraceptive adoption and empowerment. We find common themes in empowerment across contexts—but contraceptive adoption has both positive and negative effects on those domains, and this varies across context. We discuss the need for cohort studies to examine this relationship.