Typical school provision of physical education, physical activity and sports, which reflects the response to national curriculum, resource base and ethos of schools, may impact adolescent physical activity behaviors. This impact has not been considered in systematic literature reviews to date. The Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsychINFO, ERIC and MEDLINE databases were searched for relevant literature (2000–2022) on adolescents aged 12–18 years in secondary schools. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including eight cross-sectional, three longitudinal and two cluster randomized control trials. Included studies contributed 84 reported effects. Physical activity behavior was the most frequently reported outcome (n = 52), 48% of which were non-significant, 29% significantly positive, 10% significantly negative and 13% demonstrated a positive or negative trend but with no test of significance. Evidence was also found to support an impact on meeting physical activity guidelines (62.5% significantly positive effects) and in reducing sedentary behavior, particularly in girls.Notwithstanding considerable heterogeneity in the data paralleled with methodological limitations, presented evidence supports the positive impact of typical school provision of physical education, physical activity and sports on adolescent physical activity behaviors.
A structured protocol for this systematic literature review was registered on the International Prospective register of Systematic Reviews (ID number CRD42021200767).