Reproductive autonomy, or the extent to which people control matters related to their own sexual and reproductive decisions, may help explain why some people who do not intend to become pregnant nevertheless do not use contraception. Using cross-sectional survey data from 695 women aged 16 to 47 enrolled in the Umoyo Wa Thanzi (UTHA) study in Malawi in 2019, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis, descriptive analyses, and multivariable logistic regression to assess the freedom from coercion and communication subscales of the Reproductive Autonomy Scale and to examine relationships between these components of reproductive autonomy and current contraceptive use. The freedom from coercion and communication subscales were valid within this population of partnered women; results from a correlated two-factor confirmatory factor analysis model resulted in good model fit. Women with higher scores on the freedom from coercion subscale had greater odds of current contraceptive use (aOR 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03–1.23) after adjustment for pregnancy intentions, relationship type, parity, education, employment for wages, and household wealth. Scores on the communication subscale were predictive of contraceptive use in some, but not all, models. These findings demonstrate the utility of the Reproductive Autonomy Scale in more holistically understanding contractive use and non-use in a lower-income setting, yet also highlight the need to further explore the multidimensionality of women’s reproductive autonomy and its effects on achieving desired fertility.