Schools and students have faced a variety of challenges during the 2020–2021 academic year as the COVID-19 pandemic continues. These issues have drawn attention to the increased need for robust social-emotional learning skills at the elementary level to address the deficits exacerbated by the pandemic. Sources of Strength is an evidence-based suicide prevention program for middle and high school students. In 2020, Sources of Strength launched an elementary school curriculum focused on promoting protective factors and resilience. Data were collected across 11 elementary schools (N = 1022; 3–5th graders) in the Great Plains region of the USA at two time points during the COVID-19 pandemic (T1: Fall of 2020, T2: Spring of 2021). We examine the effectiveness of the program using a pre- and post-test design measuring various student social-emotional outcomes including positive classroom climate, emotional problems, school belonging, help-seeking attitudes, bullying perpetration, peer victimization, student and teacher intervention, student well-being, and student resilience. The program was evaluated using multilevel regression models to examine the associations between self-reported student program exposure and student outcomes. Although comparisons between T1 and T2 indicated a worsening of several student outcomes, positive associations were found when accounting for the degree of student exposure to the program. Greater student exposure was associated with improved positive classroom climate, school belonging, help-seeking attitudes, student well-being, resiliency, and lower reports of emotional problems. Implications for research and practice are discussed.