Masculinity contest culture (MCC), which refers to a dysfunctional organizational culture, is correlated with more frequent interpersonal mistreatment (e.g., sexual harassment and bullying) and lower levels of occupational and psychological well-being. The present cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of Chinese working women (N = 694) investigated the mediating role of interpersonal mistreatment in the association between MCC and psychological well-being, as well as potential individual and organizational moderators. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that organizational tolerance for sexual harassment (OTSH) and targets’ position in the organization moderated the links between MCC and interpersonal mistreatment. Specifically, the association between MCC and sexual harassment experiences was stronger when women held higher positions in organizations with greater OTSH. While OTSH also strengthened the association between MCC and bullying, position in the organization was not correlated with bullying and did not moderate the link between MCC and bullying. The results also provided evidence for the indirect effects of MCC on psychological well-being via sexual harassment and bullying; these indirect effects were larger via bullying than sexual harassment. Our findings demonstrate the importance of organizational culture and climate for women’s well-being and may inform recommendations for promoting a climate of respect and justice in the workplace.