Alcohol is the most widely used substance among adolescents. Although Black adolescents use alcohol at lower rates than White adolescents, Black adolescents tend to have worse outcomes. This includes higher rates of mood disorders and criminal justice involvement associated with alcohol use and misuse compared to any other racial group. Black adolescents are also more likely to experience racial discrimination and be exposed to traumatic events within their communities, which may increase their chances of using substances. Understanding the relationship between racial attitudes (towards one’s own group and others) and substance use and mental health can provide unique and meaningful insight into prevention programming for Black adolescents. Yet, these concepts have been understudied. To fill this gap, we examined the association between racial attitudes and alcohol use and mood disorders in Black adolescents in Philadelphia, PA (N = 154). We used the revised Adolescent Survey of Black Life to measure pro-Black (positive attitudes toward being Black and factors related to Black people), anti-White (negative attitudes toward White people due to experiences of racism and discrimination) and racism awareness (recognition of racism) domains. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the associations. Results showed that: higher pro-Black attitudes were associated with a lower odds of mood disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.55, 0.89); and higher racism awareness was associated with an increased odds of alcohol use (OR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06, 1.29). Findings provide preliminary support for interventions and policies for Black adolescents that bolster positive racial identity and eliminate experiences of racism as alcohol use and mood disorder prevention strategies.