Assessment of tobacco dependence is especially relevant in clinical settings, but different measures are used. The present study examines the predictive value of five tobacco dependence measures on abstinence at 6- and 12-month follow-ups in a sample of treatment-seeking smokers who had received a cognitive-behavioral intervention to quit smoking. A sample of 1108 treatment-seeking smokers was used. We assessed tobacco dependence with the Fagerstrom Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), and the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale short version (NDSS-S), as well as three measures derived from the FTCD: Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), the non-HSI items from the FTCD (non-HSI), Time to First Cigarette (TTFC). Regression models and the area under the receiver (AUC) operating characteristic curves were used to predict abstinence at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Results showed that the FTCD, HSI, and TTFC were significant predictors of abstinence at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. AUC values were low for all measures, being highest for the HSI at both time points (0.63 and 0.62), followed by the FTCD (0.61 at both time points) and the TTFC (0.60 at both time points). Findings indicated that greater tobacco dependence is a significant predictor of a lower likelihood of long-term abstinence. Moreover, short tobacco dependence measures such as the HSI and the TTFC significantly predicted 6- and 12-month abstinence, similarly to the FTCD. Therefore, using a pragmatic criterion according to time availability would be useful when choosing the measures in clinical settings.