Rumination is a vulnerability for depression and potentially linked to inhibitory control weaknesses. We aimed to replicate the association observed in adults between inhibitory control and rumination in adolescents, and to examine putative moderating roles of childhood maltreatment and perceived family cohesion in an adolescent sample at risk for depression due to familial/personal history. Ninety adolescents aged 11–17 (M = 14.6, SD = 1.8) completed self-report scales of rumination, maltreatment, and family cohesion, and performed a task assessing inhibitory control. Hierarchical regression models showed no significant relation between inhibitory control and moderator variables on rumination. However, adolescents who reported higher levels of maltreatment and who perceived lower family cohesion tended to indicate higher levels of rumination (BChilhood Maltreatment = 27.52, 95% CIs [5.63, 49.41], BFamily Cohesion = -0.40, 95% CIs [-0.65, -0.15]). These findings demonstrate an alternative understanding of factors that increase depression onset risk and recurrence in adolescents.