Etiological theories on the development of psychopathology often incorporate adverse childhood experiences (ACE) as an important contributing factor. Recent studies suggest personality functioning (PF; i.e., stability of the self and interpersonal relationships) as an important transdiagnostic construct that could be useful in better understanding when persons with ACE do (not) develop psychopathological symptoms. A representative sample of N = 2363 was assessed by questionnaires on ACE, PF (Level of Personality Functioning Scale—Brief Form), and current symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization (Brief Symptom Inventory 18). The interaction between ACE and PF on symptoms was investigated using multiple group models and Bayesian structural equation modeling. ACE were positively associated with psychopathology and PF impairments. The interaction effect between ACE and PF explained incremental variance in current symptoms, ranging from 26% for somatization to 49% for depression with the complete model explaining up to 91% of the latent variance in psychopathology. Our findings indicate a diathesis–stress model with PF as a resource or resilience that may buffer against the development of symptoms in the face of adversity. Treatments of depression and anxiety targeting self and interpersonal functioning therefore may lead to improvements in resilience and relapse prevention.