Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a common behavioral pattern that causes sufferers to ignore or violate the rights of others. Though its cause is still unclear, previous studies have shown that childhood maltreatment is closely related to ASPD. The NOS1AP gene is associated with various neuropsychiatric diseases, but a linkage between it and ASPD has not yet been discovered. This study recruited ASPD and non-ASPD male subjects who had committed violent crimes from a prison in Nanjing, China. By comparing the two groups’ genotypes, allele frequencies, and histories of childhood abuse, we explored the interaction between the NOS1AP gene and childhood maltreatment on the pathogenesis of ASPD. The results showed that polymorphism rs945713 in the NOS1AP gene was associated with ASPD and furthermore that this SNP may be involved in regulating the effect of childhood abuse on ASPD. This study found that childhood trauma increases the risk of ASPD in violent adult male inmates; for prisoners with ASPD, it is critical to pay attention to their childhood trauma and take early psychological intervention.