Motivation and self-concept count among the educationally most relevant factors and the evaluation of many educational interventions requires their valid measurement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Students’ Approaches to Learning questionnaire measuring 10 distinct motivational and self-concept constructs. This large-scale study drew a nationally representative sample (N = 6209; 49% female) from a population of 11–12-year-old Czech students. The assessment of construct validity indicated (1) the structural relations between the constructs, (2) the predictive relations to scores in standardized achievement tests or teacher-assigned grades, and (3) the distinct differences in constructs’ latent means between genders and students of the academic and mainstream track were mostly consistent with theory-derived predictions. The nomological network of the measure maps relatively well onto the observed relations. Although not intended for individual assessment, the measure allows for psychometrically sound group inferences in relatively diverse student populations.