<imgsrc=”” border=”0″ align=”left” alt=”image”>Purpose of review
The use of neurostimulation to treat mood disorders dates back to the 1930s. Recent studies have explored various neurostimulation methods aimed at both restoring a healthy brain and reducing adverse effects in patients. The purpose of this review is to explore the most recent hypotheses and clinical studies investigating the effects of stimulating the brain on mood disorders.
Recent work on brain stimulation and mood disorders has focused mainly on three aspects: enhancing efficacy and safety by developing new approaches and protocols, reducing treatment duration and chances of relapse, and investigating the physiological and pathological mechanisms behind treatment outcomes and possible adverse effects.
This review includes some of the latest studies on both noninvasive techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, transcranial direct current stimulation, transcranial alternating current stimulation, electroconvulsive treatment, and invasive techniques, such as deep brain stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation.
Brain stimulation is widely used in clinical settings; however, there is a lack of understanding about its neurobiological mechanism. Further studies are needed to understand the neurobiology of brain stimulation and how it can be used to treat mood disorders in their diversity, including comorbidities with other illnesses.