Conditioned reinforcers are widely used in applied behavior analysis. Basic research evidence reveals that Pavlovian learning plays an important role in the acquisition and efficacy of new conditioned-reinforcer functions. Thus, a better understanding of Pavlovian principles holds the promise of improving the efficacy of conditioned reinforcement in applied research and practice. This paper surveys how (and if) Pavlovian principles are presented in behavior-analytic textbooks; imprecisions and knowledge gaps within contemporary Pavlovian empirical findings are highlighted. Thereafter, six practical principles of Pavlovian conditioning are presented along with empirical support and knowledge gaps that should be filled by applied and translational behavior-analytic researchers. Innovative applications of these principles are outlined for research in language acquisition, token reinforcement, and self-control.