The notion of academic citizenship has been largely associated with the service role which is a part of academic work seen as additional to teaching and research. The changing landscapes of higher education and the increasing diversity of academic work have prompted debates on what academic citizenship means. This paper challenges the conventional association of academic citizenship with the service role and presents a critical review of the key themes and issues explored in extant literature on the subject. Drawing upon the general view of citizenship as practice, it proposes that the different dimensions of academic work be seen integratively, with academic citizenship reframed beyond the service role. We argue that academic citizenship needs to be conceptualised as a practice of enactment, that is, by the values, processes and means by which it is enacted and asserted as academics draw on freedoms, autonomy and individual motivations.