Patients may present with manic symptoms in medical settings such as emergency rooms and on inpatient medical floors, leading to psychiatric consultation to try to determine the etiology of the symptoms. It is crucial to clarify whether the mania is secondary to a medical illness or whether the patient’s symptoms are from a primary bipolar disorder. In this issue, we publish 2 case reports of patients presenting with manic symptoms in medical settings. The first case involves polymicrogyria in the frontal lobe of the brain as a cause of secondary mania. The second case involves a patient who was previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder and subsequently developed symptoms of Behçet’s disease. In this case, it appears likely that the bipolar disorder was primary, and that the Behçet disease and the bipolar disorder may have exacerbated each other. Given the complexities involved in assessing and treating patients, especially in acute or emergency settings, it is important for primary medical and psychiatric providers to collaborate and communicate well in assuring that they obtain a thorough history of their patients’ symptoms and that patients receive a comprehensive medical evaluation before psychiatric treatment is started.