The present study examines the mediating role of parental burnout in the relationship between students’ behavior problems and academic outcomes and whether this mediating process is moderated by parents’ self-compassion (PSC). This study was designed according to a cross-sectional study model, and includes 821 Vietnamese primary students (Mage = 9.98, SD = 0.889) completing behavior problems questionnaires. The parents completed parental burnout and the PSC questionnaires. The school office reported academic outcomes. Main findings include: (1) Student’s behavior problems have a direct negative influence on academic outcomes; (2) the mediating role of parental burnout was significant; (3) the moderating role of PSC was also significant. This study suggests that students’ behavior problems increase parental burnout, reducing academic outcomes. Next, higher self-compassion protected parents from the negative effect of children’s behavior problems. The results of this study are meaningful for developing interventions, which help improve parents’ mental health and children’s positive outcomes.