This study investigated the associations between self-reported deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) and informal and formal social participation among Americans aged 65 or older and how their family resources, health, and community social capital may partially account for these associations. Using cross-sectional data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, multiple logistic regressions were conducted to test the research questions. Results revealed that older adults who were D/HH had significantly lower odds of attending recreational and clubs and organized activities. Family resources and health significantly explained the disparity for all types of social participation, whereas community social capital contributed more to the disparity in religious service attendance. Findings provide important intervention directions to reduce the disparity in late-life social participation as a result of experiencing D/HH.