Outbreaks of sexually transmitted shigella have been reported in men who have sex with men (MSM) since the 1970s and present a major public health issue. Understanding the factors associated with the sexual transmission of shigella may inform future control strategies.
We systematically searched four bibliographical databases (January 2000–February 2022) for manuscripts in English. We used a two-stage process to assess eligibility: the primary author conducted an initial screen and then three authors conducted independent full-text reviews to determine the final eligible manuscripts. We only included manuscripts that included MSM diagnosed with sexually transmitted shigella where specific factors associated with transmission were identified.
Thirteen manuscripts met the inclusion criteria that included 547 individuals. Sexually transmitted shigella in MSM was associated with: residing in a capital city/urban region, living with HIV (including engaging in seroadaptive sexual behaviour, having a low CD4 count, having a HIV viral load >100 000 and not engaging with HIV care), using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, use of geospatial mobile phone applications to meet sexual partners, visiting sex on premises venues, chemsex and recreational drug use, sexual behaviour (including multiple non-regular sexual partners and oral-anal sexual contact) and concomitant STIs.
We have highlighted some important risk behaviours and factors that are associated with sexually transmitted shigella in MSM that can be used to target future shigella control interventions.