Nonrestorative sleep (NRS), defined as insufficiently rested or refreshed sleep, is considered to play an important role in the development of depression. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive ability of insomnia-related symptoms, including NRS, for incident depressive symptoms (DEPs) in a longitudinal manner.
We used data of 1196 samples aged 18–64 years who participated in both the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos conducted in 2008–2010 and the follow-up study (Sueño Ancillary Study) conducted in 2010–2013. DEPs and insomnia-related symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep [DIS], difficulty maintaining sleep [DMS], early morning awakening [EMA], difficulty returning to sleep [DRS], and NRS) were evaluated by the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Women’s Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale, respectively. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictive ability of each insomnia-related symptom at baseline for incident DEPs in couple-years.
In the univariate logistic regression analysis, all insomnia-related symptoms had significant associations with incident DEPs (DIS, odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; DMS, OR = 1.6; EMA, OR = 1.5; DRS, OR = 1.9; NRS, OR = 2.5). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and the confounding effects of other insomnia-related symptoms, only NRS (OR = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.4–3.5, p = .001) was significantly associated with incident DEPs.
NRS was a risk factor for incident DEPs, which includes a predictive ability for other insomnia-related symptoms. Our results suggest that focusing on NRS is an effective strategy for preventing depression in public health promotions.