Cross-sectional relationships between emotion regulation strategies (ERSs) and several psychopathological conditions among children and adolescents have been well-demonstrated. However, the longitudinal associations of ERSs on psychopathological manifestations during development remain unclear, especially considering their reciprocal influences over time. This meta-analytic review was based on a set of ERSs referring to a comprehensive evidence-based model of ER processes. Three hundred thirty-five studies were screened. The meta-analytic procedures were based on 60 studies (N = 20, 191; age: M [SD] = 10.27 [4.36]; years of follow-up: M [SD] = 2.23 [2.76]), which primarily assessed prospective associations between ERt1 and internalizing/externalizing psychopathology (PSY)t2. The cross-lagged correlations among these variables were also considered. Results showed: i) a small prospective association between ERt1 and PSY t2, which was independent of age and length of follow-up period. Adaptive and maladaptive domains of ER were significant moderators. Deficits in adaptive ER seemed more associated to externalizing PSY, whereas maladaptive ER was more associated to internalizing PSY; ii) cross-lagged correlations were comparable with ERt1 – PSY t2 associations. Nevertheless, the detrimental effects of PSY t1 on levels of adaptive ERt2 were larger than the protective effects of adaptive ERt1 on PSYt2. iii) When the other cross-lagged correlations were controlled for, the meta-analytic cross-lagged panel model demonstrated that maladaptive ERt1 was a significant predictor of PSYt2. ER processes should be considered transdiagnostic risk factors for psychopathology during development. Homotypic and heterotypic continuity of psychopathological conditions might reflect the stability or dynamic organization of adaptive and maladaptive ERSs over time.