Background: Reliable data about sexual behaviors is fundamental in the prevention and control of HIV, hepatitis, and other sexually transmitted infections. Generally, sexual behaviors are regarded as a sociocultural taboo in Africa and Asia, and this results in biased sexual behavior survey data due to social desirability. Various modes of survey delivery, including audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASIs), have been investigated to improve data quality. Objective: This study aimed to review studies that compared the ACASI mode to other survey modes in sexual behavior surveys in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa to ascertain the impact of survey mode on responses to sexual behavior questions. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted according to the Joanna Briggs Institute Manual for Evidence Synthesis. The review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews). Six databases were searched. Results: A total of 21 papers were included. The face-to-face interview (FTFI) mode was the survey mode most frequently compared to the ACASI mode. Among the most commonly reported outcome variable groups, ACASI participants were more likely to report sexual behaviors, such as “forced sex,” “multiple partners,” “transactional sex,” and “ever had sex,” as compared to FTFI participants. In addition to the survey mode effect, other factors were found to have had an impact on data quality, for example, participant characteristics, social norms, study design, and data collection setting. Conclusions: Use of ACASIs for administering sexual behavior surveys among populations in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa demonstrated higher reports for some sexual behaviors than the use of FTFIs. More studies that compare the ACASI mode to other survey modes would improve our understanding of the usefulness of ACASIs in sexual behavior surveys in these regions.
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