The study examined the role of campus stressors and psychological pain on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA).
Specific patterns of co-occurring psychological pain, campus stressors, and self-harm behaviors were identified by latent profile analysis, and their odds ratios (ORs) on NSSI and SA were analyzed in cross-sectional study and 2-year follow-up study. Structural Equation Model was used to explore indirect effect of campus stressors on SA and NSSI via different components of psychological pain.
Three classes were identified as low-risk class (68.58%) with low endorsements on the three measures, moderate-risk class (26.52%) with the elevated academic stressors, high levels of painful feelings, and high probabilities on NSSI; and high-risk class (4.90%) with the elevated combined stressors, high levels of pain avoidance, and high probabilities on SA. Compared to the moderate-risk class, adolescents in the high-risk class had a 4.97 OR of reporting NSSI, 17.98 OR of reporting SA. Pain avoidance class at baseline reported a higher probability in SA class (OR = 224.00) in a 2-year study.
Painful feelings might be shared psychosocial correlates for NSSI and SA. However, pain avoidance may play a role in distinguishing SA from NSSI, which shed light on the intervention of adolescents who engage in self-harm behaviors.