Using 6 years of data from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health, the present study investigated ethnic minority-White disparities in self-rated health and community functioning for persons with untreated mental illness. Comparing minority and White persons with untreated severe mental illness (SMI) and mild and moderate mental illness (MMMI), the study sought evidence of “double jeopardy”: that minority persons with mental illness suffer an added burden from being members of ethnic minority groups. For African Americans with SMI and MMMI, results indicated that the odds were greater of living in poverty, being unemployed, and being arrested in the past year, and for African Americans with SMI, the odds were greater of reporting fair/poor health. For Native Americans/Alaska Native persons with MMMI, the odds were greater of living in poverty and being arrested in the past year. For Latinx persons with SMI and MMMI, the odds were greater of living in poverty and for Latinx persons with SMI the odds were greater of reporting fair/poor health. Results indicate that African Americans with mental illness suffer pervasive adversity relative to Whites and Native Americans/Alaska Natives and Latinx persons do so selectively.