Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 cases are pervasive. Some minority, immigrant, and marginalized groups, such as Arab Americans, have been excluded from the research. This population confronts barriers to health care, discrimination, and other factors that may affect understanding, testing, and treatment as it relates to COVID-19. Arab Americans are unique compared to Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and Asians because Arab Americans do not have a specific ethnic identifier and are classified as non-Hispanic white. Given these issues, this study will estimate COVID-19 cases and examine associations among Arab Americans compared to Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Asian adults. Data from the Michigan Disease Surveillance System (March 2020–July 2021), the American Community Survey (2015–2019), and an Arab/Chaldean surname algorithm were used. Chi-square tests were used to determine statistically significant differences between groups. Logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted and sex-stratified proportions among Arab Americans compared to non-Hispanic whites before and after adjusting for age and sex. Approximately 17% of Arab Americans tested positive for COVID-19 compared to 11.32% of Hispanics, 9.80% of non-Hispanic blacks, 7.50% of non-Hispanic whites, and 4.24% of Asians. Arab Americans had 2.63 (95% CI: 2.59, 2.66) times greater odds of testing positive for COVID-19 compared to non-Hispanic whites. When Arab Americans were disaggregated from non-Hispanic whites, alarming patterns in COVID-19 cases were observed for Arab Americans. To accurately represent the burden of COVID-19 among Arab Americans, this population needs to have an ethnic identifier that informs appropriate health policy decisions and practice.