In recent years, results on the association between serum uric acid (UA) and pregnancy outcomes have been inconsistent, and the association between urea nitrogen (UN) and adverse pregnancy outcomes in normal pregnant women has not been reported. Thus, we examined the association of UA and UN levels during gestation with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in a relatively large population.
A total of 1602 singleton mothers from Union Shenzhen Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology at January 2015 to December 2018 were included. Both UA and UN levels were collected and measured during the second (16–18th week) and third (28–30th week) trimesters of gestation respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression.
After adjustment, the highest quartile of UA in the third trimester increased the risk of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and small for gestational age infants (SGA) by 48% (odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–2.10) and 99% (95% CI: 1.01–3.89) compared to those in the lowest quartile. The adjusted OR (95% CI) in the highest quartile of UN for the risk of SGA was 2.18 (95% CI: 1.16–4.13) and 2.29 (95% CI: 1.20–4.36) in the second and third trimester, respectively. In the second trimester, when UA and UN levels were both in the highest quartile, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for the risk of SGA was 2.51 (95% CI: 1.23–5.10). In the third trimester, when the group 1 (both indicators are in the first quartile) was compared, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) for the risk of SGA were 1.98 (95% CI: 1.22–3.23) and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.16–4.61) for group 2 (UA or UN is in the second or third quartile) and group 3 (both indicators are in the fourth quartile), respectively.
Higher UA and UN levels increased the risk of maternal and fetal outcomes. The simultaneous elevation of UA and UN levels was a high-risk factors for the development of SGA, regardless of whether they were in the second or third trimester.