The goal of this study was to examine whether strategies such as planning and self-monitoring the quality/quantity of eating can explain the relationships between autonomous and controlled motivation and eating in undergraduate female students. Study 1 (n = 456) examined whether the strategies could account for additional variance in eating outcomes beyond the influence of motivation, and whether the strategies mediated the relationships between motivation and eating. Study 2 (n = 979) replicated the results within structural equation models. Autonomous motivation was positively associated with planning and self-monitoring eating quality, and these strategies were then positively and negatively associated with healthy and unhealthy eating, respectively. In contrast, controlled motivation was positively associated with planning and self-monitoring eating quantity, and these strategies were then positively associated with bulimic symptoms. Findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which different motivations relate to distinct eating outcomes and suggest that promoting eating quality may be more beneficial for adopting healthy eating behaviors.