Self-harm and aggression increase markedly during early adolescence. However, few studies considered these harmful behaviors simultaneously. This study employed a person-centered approach to identify profiles of adolescents who differed in their patterns of self-harm, reactive aggression, and proactive aggression, examined the stability of these patterns, and explored the effect of bullying victimization on latent profile membership and transition. A total of 2463 early adolescents (48.8% girls, Mage = 13.93 ± 0.59) participated in two waves of the study over six months. The results indicated that low symptoms profile (80.4%), moderate aggression profile (14.2%), high aggression profile (3.0%), and high self-harm profile (2.4%) were identified at time 1, and low symptoms profile (82.1%), dual-harm profile (7.6%), high aggression profile (7.7%), and high self-harm profile (2.6%) were identified at time 2. Adolescents assigned to at-risk profiles showed moderate to high transition, suggesting the developmental heterogeneity of self-harm and aggression. Moreover, adolescents high in bullying victimization were more likely to belong or transition to at-risk profiles. The findings revealed the co-occurring and transitional nature of self-harm and aggression and the transdiagnostic role of bullying victimization, which can be used to guide prevention and intervention strategies.