Problematic sexual behavior (PSB) among preteen children is a poorly understood clinical phenomenon that may leave even the most skilled and knowledgeable of clinicians at a loss when attempting to develop an evidence-based treatment approach. Much of this lack of practical direction can be credited to the relatively scarce clinical trial research examining this outcome. Nonetheless, the etiological research on PSB provides clearer directions and suggests the implementation of already well-established interventions may be effective. This paper reviews the current state of the etiological research pertaining to PSB and places these findings within developmental psychopathology, social learning theory, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology frameworks. Specific treatment directives derived from these three viewpoints are then reviewed, including a review of the current evidence base for the treatment of PSB. Finally, a treatment planning algorithm is specified to help clinicians identify the most beneficial approach to treating PSB in a given case.