In Myanmar, transgender women (TGW) have historically been grouped into the men who have sex with men (MSM) population in program and surveillance data. There is no direct translation for the term transgender in Myanmar language, and there are no data on HIV prevalence or HIV-related risk behaviors among TGW. Therefore, this study aimed to explore how TGW identify and express themselves in Myanmar and their HIV-related risk behaviors. This qualitative study consisted of 11 key informant interviews with service providers and 20 in-depth interviews with TGW participants in Yangon in 2017. All participants said that TGW in Myanmar were assigned male at birth, but none identified as men; they all self-identified as women or another gender, such as trans. Such identity emerged from an internal sense of being a woman or an alternative gender. In addition, many participants reported that TGW changed their appearance through changes in clothing or mannerisms. TGW are particularly vulnerable to violence: Often reported during transition, transgender women were exposed to transphobia, violence and discrimination from their family, relatives or workplace. Many participants reported TGW being the receptive partner during sex and engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors, such as sex with multiple partners, group sex, and condomless sex. Our findings can help to define this population in the Myanmar context and assess needs for health services.