The objective of this study was to discern health risk factors for chronic disease by age and sex in a Canadian cohort. Participants of the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (PATH) cohort with health risk factor data (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, body mass index [BMI]) were included (n = 16,165). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship among health risk factors, age, and sex. Regression analysis revealed that the odds of engaging in high levels of physical activity and having a BMI ≥ 25 was lower for females than males across all age groups, whereas the odds of abdominal obesity was substantially higher for females of all ages than for males. The odds of habitually consuming alcohol was lower for females of all ages than for males, and the odds of being a former/current smoker was lower for older (57–74 years of age) females than for males. The odds of consuming five or more servings of fruit and vegetables per day was higher for females of all ages than for males. There are evident differences in health risk factors for males and for females, as well as across age groups, and public health efforts need to account for the role played by sex and age in addressing chronic disease burden in Canadian adults.