Clarifying the role of physical limitations in the relationship between frequency of going out and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be useful in supporting early detection and prevention of MCI. However, few studies have explored relatively active populations that are continuously active throughout the year. This study aimed to determine the relationship between frequency of going out and MCI among non-homebound older adults who participated in group activities to prevent frailty.
This prospective cohort study used frequency of going out as the exposure and MCI as the outcome. The Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale and questionnaires about daily life were completed by 153 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years participating in frailty prevention groups in a rural town. The baseline survey was conducted from December 2017 to March 2018 and analysed cross-sectionally. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 1- and 2-years and analysed longitudinally.
Univariate and binomial logistic regression analyses at baseline showed no association between MCI and frequency of going out in older adults with physical limitations. However, there was a significant association in older adults without physical limitations. A binomial logistic regression analysis of the frequency of going out at baseline and cognitive function at the 2-year follow-up showed no association between MCI and frequency of going out in older adults with physical limitations, but there was a significant association in those without physical limitations.
Our results suggest that frequency of going out may not be a useful indicator of MCI in older adults with physical limitations, although low frequency of going out may be an indicator of MCI in older adults without physical limitations.