Previous literature establishes a contingency-based framework of external conditions, internal organizational characteristics, and board attributes and composition that impact board effectiveness and calls for more industry-specific nonprofit studies to build the field’s knowledge of the factors that lead to nonprofit board effectiveness. In this manuscript, we use a national study of nonprofit charter school boards to answer this call. Controlling for internal organizational characteristics and external conditions, we examine how board member selection criteria is related to levels of board boundary spanning in inward, upward, and outward accountability environments. Selecting board members because of their knowledge of the organization, have membership in the group being served and for their willingness to give time is all associated with higher levels of inward, upward, and outward accountability activities. Alternatively, selecting board members because they are friends/acquaintances of current board members is associated with lower levels of activities across all three accountability environments. Our findings suggest that charter school boards may be recruiting board members who can relate to multiple stakeholder groups across accountability environments rather than selecting for members who operate in distinct accountability environments.