This article examines Muslim social workers’ recommendations regarding child custody of parents with intellectual developmental disabilities and mental illness in Israel. Aside from the professional challenges of determining whether the parents are capable of being custodians, the article portrays and discusses the role of traditional norms in Muslim social workers’ recommendations. The tension between professional and traditional norms and values is introduced and analysed in three different vignettes chosen from 14 Shari’a court rulings. The article concludes that Muslim social workers are aware of the traditional norms that prevail in their communities but tend to follow their professional values in their practice. The article sheds light on the importance of the family in the lives of people with disabilities in Arab society during the professional practice. The religious elements of a traditional society in the context of disabilities should be taken into account also.