Children and their families have been significantly impacted by the unfolding of the COVID-19 syndemic. We sought to identify (1) groups of families with distinct profiles of joint trajectories of parental anxiety and child emotional distress and (2) protective and risk factors associated with these dual-trajectory profiles. A sample of 488 parents (65% White; 77% mothers) with 3- to 8-year-old children (M
Age = 5.04, SD
Age = 1.59) was followed from late March to early July in 2020. Survey data on parent (i.e., anxiety symptoms) and child (i.e., emotional distress) adjustment were collected at three time points. Using multivariate growth mixture modeling, we identified one group with low parental anxiety and child emotional distress (42.7%) and three other distinct groups with varying risk levels among parents and/or children. We also identified protective (e.g., positive parenting) and risk (e.g., child negative affect, negative parenting, perceived stress with racism) factors in predicting parent and child adjustment. It can be concluded that, overall, our sample (mostly middle- and high-socioeconomic status families) demonstrated family resilience amid COVID-19, consistent with prior disaster coping literature. At the same time, our findings also indicated the need to identify at-risk families and modifiable factors for post-disaster public health interventions.
新冠肺炎疫情的蔓延严重影响了儿童及其家庭。我们试图确定 (1) 具有明显的父母焦虑和儿童情绪困扰双重轨迹的家庭群体，以及 (2) 与这些双重轨迹轨迹相关的保护性和风险因素。样本来自488对父母 (65%为白人; 77% 身为母亲），本研究在2020年3月底至7月初，对3- 8岁儿童(年龄平均值 = 5.04, 年龄标准方差= 1.59) 的母亲进行了随访。在三个时间点收集父母 (即焦虑症状) 和儿童 (即情绪困扰) 调整的调查数据。使用多元增长混合模型，我们确定了一个父母焦虑和儿童情绪困扰程度较低的群体(42.7%)，以及另外三个父母和/或儿童中存在不同风险水平的不同群体。我们还确定了在预测父母和孩子适应方面的保护性因素(例如，积极的养育方式) 和风险因素 (例如，孩子的负面影响、消极的养育方式、带有种族主义的感知压力)。本研究的结论是，我们的被调查家庭 (主要来自社会经济地位中、高的家庭) 在2019冠状病毒病中表现出了家庭复原力，这与以往的关于家庭面临灾难后应对情况的研究文献中的结果一致。与此同时，我们的研究结果也表明，需要确定问题家庭和灾后公共健康干预的可更改因素。