Peacekeepers are inherently exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) in the line of duty. However, little is known about whether PTEs during peacekeeping missions may foster post-traumatic growth (PTG) among peacekeepers and its mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the association between PTEs and PTG among Chinese peacekeepers, as well as the mediating role of coping style and the moderating role of resilience. 595 Chinese peacekeepers completing the UN peacekeeping mission in South Sudan and returning to China were recruited to complete Peacekeeping Traumatic Stress Exposure Scale, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and the Chinese version of Connor and Davidson’s Resilience Scale. PTEs were positively associated with PTG among Chinese peacekeepers. Coping style partially mediated the association between PTEs and PTG. Resilience moderated the association between coping style and PTG. Specifically, at a lower level of resilience, positive coping style was more effective in predicting PTG. This study contributes to understanding the complex association between PTEs in peacekeeping missions, coping style, resilience, and PTG by focusing on the experiences of Chinese peacekeepers and adds value to the current literature on psychological health in peacekeepers.