It is often assumed that emotional eating occurs when an individual is unable to utilise emotion regulation (ER) to cope with stress. In this stress exposure study, we explored whether manipulating participants’ ER strategies (rumination or self-compassion) influenced their stress-related affect and food consumption. Fifty-three adolescents (Mage = 14.72) were included; half of the participants were instructed to use rumination as their ER strategy, and half were instructed to use self-compassion. We could not demonstrate that the ER strategies differently affected stress-related affect. However, we did find that increased Happiness following ER self-compassion predicted reduced High-Fat Sweet food consumption, whereas increased Happiness following ER rumination instead led to greater High-Fat Sweet food consumption. In participants who ruminated, food consumption reduced feelings of Frustration, but not Boredom or Happiness. Post-hoc exploration revealed that only ER self-compassion, not ER rumination, normalised levels of stress-related affect. The results highlight the need for more research into the complex relationship between ER strategies, affect states, and food types in their effect on emotional eating.