Sleep disorders and vitamin D deficiency are highly prevalent health problems. Few studies examined the effect of vitamin D concentrations on objectively measured sleep with high methodological quality and temporal proximity. Previous analysis within the LIFE-Adult-Study suggested that a lower concentration of serum vitamin D was associated with both shorter and later night sleep. However, no conclusion about underlying mechanisms could be drawn. We addressed the question whether this relationship is explained by the presence of depressive syndromes, which are linked to both vitamin D deficiency and sleep disturbances.
It was investigated whether the association of vitamin D concentrations and night sleep parameters is mediated or moderated by depressive symptomatology. We investigated a subset (n = 1252) of the community sample from the LIFE-Adult-Study, in which sleep parameters had been objectively assessed using actigraphy, based on which two sleep parameters were calculated: night sleep duration and midsleep time. Serum 25(OH) D concentrations were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Depressive symptomatology was evaluated with the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The mediation effect was analyzed by using Hayes’ PROCESS macro tool for SPSS for Windows.
The depressive symptomatology was neither significantly associated with night sleep duration nor midsleep time. The associations between vitamin D concentrations and night sleep duration/midsleep time through mediation by depressive symptomatology were not significant. Corresponding moderator analyses were also non-significant.
The associations between vitamin D concentrations and night sleep parameters (sleep duration and midsleep time) seem to be neither mediated nor moderated by depressive symptomatology.