Lithuania, as a part of the former Soviet Union, has a long-standing history of perceived equality for women in the workplace. Women played an equal role in economic production as it was a constitutional expectation that all citizens had both a right and an obligation to work. Consequently, at the time of independence in 1990 the levels of participation of women in the workplace including at managerial and professional levels were much higher than other western European countries. In architecture, women achieved parity in terms of numbers, but this equality did not transfer into all aspects of economic activity. Drawing on qualitative survey and interview data from 31 Lithuanian women architects, our findings show, despite the historical emphasis on equality, the existence of a “critical mass” of women in the profession and the adoption of EU gender equality policy, the position of women remains poor with clear evidence of sex discrimination, harassment, and lack of opportunities for career advancement.