To explore the association between bullying and HRQoL among Chinese school-aged children and adolescents utilizing a cross-sectional survey design. Bivariate associations were used to determine the correlation between the experience of bullying and lower HRQoL, and multivariate logistic regressions were evaluated. A total of 2,155 participants, 32.57%, reported experiencing bullying: traditional bullying, 27.80% (n = 599) (β = −3.55, p < .001, SE = 0.41), and cyberbullying, 7.47% (n = 161) (β = −2.50, p < .001, SE = 0.71). The degree of traditional bullying (β = −10.28, p < .001, SE = 1.19) was negatively significantly associated with HRQoL. Other determinants of the impact of the bullying in this cohort were the children’s school performance and their relationship with parents, teachers and classmates.